작성자 : admin작성일 : 2016-04-20 10:43

2013) Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics of Novel Selective Vascular

저자 : Juefang Ding, Xiaoyan Chen, Zhiwei Gao, Xiaojian Dai, Liang Li, Cen Xie, Haoyuan Jiang,Lijia Zhang, and Dafang Zhong

출처 : NCBI

Apatinib is a new oral antiangiogenic molecule that inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2. The present study aimed to determine the metabolism, pharmacokinetics, and excretion of apatinib in humans and to identify the enzymes responsible for its metabolism. The primary routes of apatinib biotransformation included E- and Z-cyclopentyl-3-hydroxylation, N-dealkylation, pyridyl-25-N-oxidation, 16-hydroxylation, dioxygenation, and O-glucuronidation after 3-hydroxylation. Nine major metabolites were confirmed by comparison with reference standards. The total recovery of the administered dose was 76.8% within 96 hours postdose, with 69.8 and 7.02% of the administered dose excreted in feces and urine, respectively. About 59.0% of the administered dose was excreted unchanged via feces. Unchanged apatinib was detected in negligible quantities in urine, indicating that systemically available apatinib was extensively metabolized. The major circulating metabolite was the pharmacologically inactive E-3-hydroxy-apatinib-O-glucuronide (M9-2), the steady-state exposure of which was 125% that of the apatinib. The steady-state exposures of E-3-hydroxy-apatinib (M1-1), Z-3-hydroxy-apatinib (M1-2), and apatinib-25-N-oxide (M1-6) were 56, 22, and 32% of parent drug exposure, respectively. Calculated as pharmacological activity index values, the contribution of M1-1 to the pharmacology of the drug was 5.42 to 19.3% that of the parent drug. The contribution of M1-2 and M1-6 to the pharmacology of the drug was less than 1%. Therefore, apatinib was a major contributor to the overall pharmacological activity in humans. Apatinib was metabolized primarily by CYP3A4/5 and, to a lesser extent, by CYP2D6, CYP2C9, and CYP2E1. UGT2B7 was the main enzyme responsible for M9-2 formation. Both UGT1A4 and UGT2B7 were responsible for Z-3-hydroxy-apatinib-O-glucuronide (M9-1) formation.

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